Monday, August 24, 2020
The Importance of Transformational Leadership During a Company Crisis - Research Paper Example The Importance of Transformational Leadership during a Company Crisis: The Case of Wal-Mart Background of the Study A lot of research on administration has been done as such idea has been related with a wide scope of elements including the procedure of dynamic, pioneer supporter cooperation, and objective foundation and achievement, to give some examples (Steane, Hua, and Teo, 2003). The idea that the idea of administration can make critical commitment for innovative work has been generally recognized by academicians and authoritative pioneers the same. Because of the quick changes in globalization and mechanical patterns, there has likewise been an expansion in the need and endeavor of organizations to put more endeavors in holding a solid workforce while tending to the perplexing requests and inclinations of their clients (Nielsen, Randall, Yarker, and Brenner, 2008). Due to these worries, associations have distinguished the need to adequately execute administration, particularly a s it has been regularly connected to ideal results, for example, an expansion in execution, viability, and duty just as improved hierarchical achievement. Thus, successful administration turns into a critical need for any organization. Advancement and imagination alone may not be sufficiently adequate to address both inside and outer weights while the usage of different strategies and practices don't in every case fundamentally produce results except if viable pioneers are made. Pioneers must have the qualities and goals that are important to actuate any required change while holding an enabled workforce to help make progress (Jung and Sosik, 2002). The vision that they set up and the qualities that they live out and show to their devotees assumes an applicable job when such pioneers settle on choices that will affect the whole association. Dominant part of authority considers have demonstrated that transformational initiative can be the best type of administration to realize change in any gathering of people by emphatically moving these individuals to make the important change for their prosperity (Conger, 1999). Pioneers who adopt the transformational strategy are commonly fit for inspiring their adherents to grasp such changes, improve their exhibition, and be set up to open up to new practices, just for the better of the association (Avolio, Zhu, Kho, and Bhatia, 2004). Organization Background and Description of the Crisis Sam Walton established Wal-Mart Stores Inc. in 1962, with its first base camp situated in Bentonville, Arkansas. It was first referred to over the United States as the Ã¢â¬Å"largest staple retailerÃ¢â¬ and has really extended to remember a sum of 8,500 for 15 nations, with the stores taking an alternate name. For example, in the United Kingdom, the stores are known as Asda, while in Mexico, a few stores are known as Walmex, while India has taken to the name Best Price (Buerkle, 1999). Among the emergencies tormenting Wal-Mart incorpo rate a negative picture with respect to how it pays its laborers. As indicated by an article distributed in Bloomberg Businessweek, Wal-Mart has been attempting to improve its notoriety due to the low wages it has been known to
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ and SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Oedipus RexÃ¢â¬ correspond in that the two of them are catastrophes, the previous being an advanced disaster, explicitly set in twentieth-century America; in the interim, the last is a lot more established, of antiquated Greek inception. Regardless of the broad time allotment between the two plays, in creation and in setting, just as the various social orders to which they relate, the two works stay consistent with the class of disaster; in this way, the two pieces can reasonably be set one next to the other and contrasted with each other. Willy Loman is the focal character in Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a Salesman,Ã¢â¬ and Oedipus is his partner in Ã¢â¬Å"Oedipus Rex.Ã¢â¬ Both Willy Loman and Oedipus share attributes for all intents and purpose, similar to the way that they are both incognizant in regards to the real world; yet both stay unmistakable in their own particular manners, and it is accurat ely these distinctions, for example, their respect, what adheres to a meaningful boundary of qualification between Oedipus being a legend and Willy Loman being a wannabe. Both Willy Loman and Oedipus experience the ill effects of a significant imperfection in their character, which is the essential factor in drawing the course of their particular destinies. This defect is visual deficiency to the real world. Willy Loman is unequipped for perceiving what is genuine based on what isn't. His principal fixation on the American dream, which he has not accomplished at his 60 years old and will never accomplish, makes him look for comfort in past recollections while embracing the here and now. This gets apparent by his flashbacks, similar to the one he encounters when Willy and Charley are playing a card game and Willy starts to stand up uproarious alluding to Charley as Ben, WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s sibling: WILLY. IÃ¢â¬â¢m getting terribly worn out, Ben. CHARLEY. Great, continue playing; youÃ¢â¬â¢ll rest better. Did you call me Ben? WILLY. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s entertaining. For a second there you helped me to remember my sibling Ben. (Mill operator 1718) Willy can't see the brutality that encompasses his circumstance, much the same as Oedipus, who is blindfolded by t... Free Essays on Comparing Oedipus And Death Of A Salesman Free Essays on Comparing Oedipus And Death Of A Salesman Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ and SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Oedipus RexÃ¢â¬ concur in that the two of them are catastrophes, the previous being a cutting edge disaster, explicitly set in twentieth-century America; in the interim, the last is a lot more seasoned, of old Greek cause. Regardless of the broad time period between the two plays, in creation and in setting, just as the various social orders to which they relate, the two works stay consistent with the class of disaster; along these lines, the two pieces can appropriately be set one next to the other and contrasted with each other. Willy Loman is the focal character in Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a Salesman,Ã¢â¬ and Oedipus is his partner in Ã¢â¬Å"Oedipus Rex.Ã¢â¬ Both Willy Loman and Oedipus share attributes for all intents and purpose, similar to the way that they are both ignorant concerning reality; yet both stay particular in their own specific manners, and it is accurately these distinctions, fo r example, their respect, what adheres to a meaningful boundary of qualification between Oedipus being a saint and Willy Loman being a screw-up. Both Willy Loman and Oedipus experience the ill effects of a significant blemish in their character, which is the essential factor in drawing the course of their separate destinies. This imperfection is visual impairment to the real world. Willy Loman is unequipped for recognizing what is genuine based on what isn't. His principal fixation on the American dream, which he has not accomplished at his 60 years old and will never accomplish, makes him look for comfort in past recollections while embracing the here and now. This gets apparent by his flashbacks, similar to the one he encounters when Willy and Charley are playing a game of cards and Willy starts to stand up noisy alluding to Charley as Ben, WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s sibling: WILLY. IÃ¢â¬â¢m getting horrendously worn out, Ben. CHARLEY. Great, continue playing; youÃ¢â¬â¢ll rest better. Did you call me Ben? WILLY. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s clever. For a second there you helped me to remember my sibling Ben. (Mill operator 1718) Willy can't see the brutality that encompasses his circumstance, much the same as Oedipus, who is blindfolded by t...
Sunday, July 26, 2020
Can napping help you concentrate Can napping help you concentrate? Can napping help you concentrate? Students are well known to be sleep deprived, constantly pulling all-nighters to finish papers last minute or study for back-to-back exams. On campus, itâs not unusual to spot sleepy students catching a few minutes of sleep between classes or before they head to work. But does napping actually help students stay alert and focused during school? A study from Australia suggests the answer is no. The study of 280 university students in Australia found that more than half, 54%, of students napped at least once per week. About 17% of the students were regular nappers, lying down during the day more than three times every week. And of the students who took naps, most slept for more than 30 minutes when they did. But what are the effects of naps? Do they wake you back up or make you groggier? This research actually found that napping made students feel worse and function more poorly at school. Specifically, students who took naps reported more trouble organizing their thoughts and concentrating than students who didnât take naps. Whatâs more, napping students also felt less motivation and had more problems finishing tasks. The students who napped also said they felt more depressed during the day than students who stayed up and only went to sleep at night. Maybe napping isnât such a good idea after all! Most of these students said they took naps due to excessive sleepiness during daytime. Interestingly though, the amount of sleep students got at nighttime did not differ between napping and non-napping students. It seems the student who napped simply had a higher need for sleep than those who did not. Poor them! Judging by this study, it seems like the best thing to do is to know your own body and how much sleep you need. Get as much as possible at nighttime, and power through your day rather than take a sleeping break! Youâll feel better, work harder, and accomplish more. If itâs not humanly possible to get all that work done and get enough sleep at night, let Homework Help Canada to take a load off (or two or three). We offer high-quality, custom essays for a wide variety of subjects and almost any grade level, even up to Masterâs and Ph.D. coursework. Our team of professional writers has years of experience crafting custom assignments for tons of subjects, so you can rest well at night. Didnât realize you werenât going to finish that paper until a day or two before? No problem. Weâre well equipped to get your work done even on 24 hoursâ notice. References: Lovato, N., Lack, L., Wright, H. (2014). The Napping Behaviour of Australian University Students. PLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113666 Can napping help you concentrate Can napping help you concentrate? Can napping help you concentrate? Students are well known to be sleep deprived, constantly pulling all-nighters to finish papers last minute or study for back-to-back exams. On campus, itâs not unusual to spot sleepy students catching a few minutes of sleep between classes or before they head to work. But does napping actually help students stay alert and focused during school? A study from Australia suggests the answer is no. The study of 280 university students in Australia found that more than half, 54%, of students napped at least once per week. About 17% of the students were regular nappers, lying down during the day more than three times every week. And of the students who took naps, most slept for more than 30 minutes when they did. But what are the effects of naps? Do they wake you back up or make you groggier? This research actually found that napping made students feel worse and function more poorly at school. Specifically, students who took naps reported more trouble organizing their thoughts and concentrating than students who didnât take naps. Whatâs more, napping students also felt less motivation and had more problems finishing tasks. The students who napped also said they felt more depressed during the day than students who stayed up and only went to sleep at night. Maybe napping isnât such a good idea after all! Most of these students said they took naps due to excessive sleepiness during daytime. Interestingly though, the amount of sleep students got at nighttime did not differ between napping and non-napping students. It seems the student who napped simply had a higher need for sleep than those who did not. Poor them! Judging by this study, it seems like the best thing to do is to know your own body and how much sleep you need. Get as much as possible at nighttime, and power through your day rather than take a sleeping break! Youâll feel better, work harder, and accomplish more. If itâs not humanly possible to get all that work done and get enough sleep at night, let Homework Help USA to take a load off (or two or three). We offer high-quality, custom essays for a wide variety of subjects and almost any grade level, even up to Masterâs and Ph.D. coursework. Our team of professional writers has years of experience crafting custom assignments for tons of subjects, so you can rest well at night. Didnât realize you werenât going to finish that paper until a day or two before? No problem. Weâre well equipped to get your work done even on 24 hoursâ notice. References: Lovato, N., Lack, L., Wright, H. (2014). The Napping Behaviour of Australian University Students. PLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113666
Friday, May 22, 2020
A wave function is defined to be a function describing the probability of a particles quantum state as a function of position, momentum, time, and/or spin. Wave functions are commonly denoted by the variable Ã ¨. A wave function may be used to describe the probability of finding an electron within a matter wave. To do this, the wave function, which may include an imaginary number, is squared to yield a real number solution. Then, the probability of an electron being within a certain area can be assessed. The famous Schrodinger equation introduced the wave function concept in 1925.
Friday, May 8, 2020
In all religions, there are different structures of authority. It can be the way the system works; people live their lives, or how they view their world. The people in SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ Apology and the Hebrew Bible have different ways of life. The Greek gods and the Hebrew God shape these peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s views, and they live the way their Gods want them to. SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ gods and the JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ God give them a sense of authority in how they live and view their world. It evidently shows in SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ Apology while Socrates defends himself in court, and in the books of the Bible when the Jews follow God and how they judge before and after Jesus comes down. Although the AtheniansÃ¢â¬â¢ and JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives contrast sharply, the ways they devote themselves to their GodsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Socrates never makes people change their beliefs in their gods; he believes he is merely telling the truth to everyone he meets. However, the Athenians think it is unforg ivable that Socrates does not believe in the same gods and speaks his mind. On the other hand, the Hebrew God is the only God in charge of everything. God has a son named Jesus, who came down to Earth to save the people on it. Jesus gives people more chances and forgives them. God does not need humans to continue being powerful. In fact, God wants to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah because Ã¢â¬Å"The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great and their sin so grievous that I will go down and see if what they have done is as bad as the outcry that has reached meÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Genesis 18:20). The Hebrew God does not put up with sinful people. He does not need a bunch of individuals on Earth if they do not believe and obey him. Unlike the judges in court with Socrates, Jesus is merciful. The teachers of the law and the Pharisees bring a woman who committed adultery to Jesus. They ask him if they should stone her to death since Moses commands it in his Law for women like her. Jesus says that if they are without sin, they may throw a stone at her. As a r esult, they all leave her alone with Jesus, and he tells her that he does not condemn her, and now she should go and leave her life of sin (John
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
National Education ( NE ) was introduced to Singapore Schools in 1997 to develop national coherence, cultivate the inherent aptitude for endurance as a state and instil in our pupils, assurance in our state Ã¢â¬Ës hereafter. It besides emphasises on cultivating a sense of belonging and emotional rootedness to Singapore. Many programmes such as Community Involvement Programme ( CIP ) and Learning Journeys were designed to assist schools accomplish such aims and the duty of put to deathing these programmes falls on the instructors. We will write a custom essay sample on Challenges being faced as a beginning teacher or any similar topic only for you Order Now As a beginning instructor, freshly introduced into the profession, challenges are faced in the effort to implement such enterprises. In my sentiment, one major challenge that I would meet is planing activities that infuses a sense of relevance in our pupils Ã¢â¬â allowing them understand that national coherence is a consequence of the uninterrupted attempts of every Singaporean, and they are a portion of the equation. These pupils were born in the epoch of political and economical stableness, where bulk grew up in environments run intoing their demands and carry throughing most of their wants. Hence, they have the inclination to take their security and wellbeing for granted, doing them unable to grok the battles faced by Singapore in keeping the current success and stableness and the demand for NE. For illustration, most schools in Singapore commemorate nucleus event, Racial Harmony Day through the showcasing of the diversified cultural costumes and playing of cultural games to enable their pupils Ã¢â¬Ë in-depth cultural cognition of their equals. Yet, a bulk of them treat the recollection of the twenty-four hours as an chance for an interesting concert and a half-day school, and few genuinely understanding the implicit in principle behind the activities, allow entirely instil a sense of relevance. Amidst the current racial harmonious atmosphere between different racial groups, pupils are unable to gestate the thought of racial public violences, its Ã¢â¬Ë impact on Singapore and the importance of racial harmoniousness in a society. They view information relayed through these events as irrelevant and doubt the possibility of the return of such incidents in the current Singapore. It is of a common apprehension that the six NE messages would ever stay as words on paper unless instructors inculcate them into pupils in an piquant mode. Therefore, as a get downing instructor with no anterior experience in the ingraining of NE messages, I feel that the undertaking of planing engaging, merriment and relevant activities would be enormous, with myself holding unequal cognition of the activity thoughts that pupils are receptive to. Instilling a sense of relevance in pupils would be a immense challenge as it is non an easy undertaking to alter pupils Ã¢â¬Ë deeply-rooted thought from Ã¢â¬Å" the duty of keeping national coherence autumn merely on the grownups and authorities Ã¢â¬ to the thought that Ã¢â¬Å" national coherence is the duty of everyone, including pupils Ã¢â¬ . Students should be taught that societal coherence occurs because each and everyone put in attempt and play our portion in lending to the wellbeing of the state. The issue is relevant to both grownups and pupils. From my personal observation, about all Singapore Schools repeat the same NE programmes for their pupils every twelvemonth, differing merely at the activities to be completed at single degrees. As such, pupils were bored of it, and older pupils particularly, expressed cynicism, and were unresponsive to the programmes. Hence, I feel that the 2nd challenge that I would confront as a get downing instructor in the effort to put to death the enterprises is eliciting pupils Ã¢â¬Ë involvement in the engagement of NE-related activities. Unlike the traditional topics that we were taught to learn in the instruction institute, NE is non merely another topic where pupils learn by conventional instruction methods. In fact, pupils understand the constructs in NE better when the activities are prosecuting, merriment and capture their attending. Although pupils reflected that programmes designed by the school Ã¢â¬Ës NE commission were everyday, get downing instructors, including myself, are unable to plan and implement new thoughts in topographic point of old 1s, with bing NE models in schools. On the contrary, I would be expected to follow the guidelines and present a similar NE lesson. As a get downing instructor with limited learning experience and teaching methods accomplishments, I would miss the ability in transform these guidelines into prosecuting and interesting lessons on par as that of the experient instructors. Most experient instructors are able to present interesting NE lessons, transforming the repetitive, dull lesson into prosecuting sharing lessons while staying by the guidelines. They reflected on their past instruction experiences, gathered feedback from old batches of pupils, and modified their instruction teaching method consequently to appeal to pupils Ã¢â¬Ë involvement. Therefore, pupils Ã¢â¬Ë involvements in NE activities are aroused and they participate actively in it. On the other manus, get downing instructors enter schoolrooms today with high outlooks of ourselves and of our pupils. Our learning method would be influenced by single background and assorted learning theories. However, the deficiency of experience in the instruction field would impact the quality of the lesson bringing as I would be unable to accommodate to pupils Ã¢â¬Ë demands. In add-on, I would be given to avoid diverting from the model to plan newer, more exciting lessons as I fear for botching the ba lance between merriment and content. After all, the intent of the NE lesson would be defeated if there is more merriment than content. To reason, the aims of NE could be attained through appropriate programmes and it is therefore highly of import to instill a sense of relevance in our pupils and to elicit their involvement in NE activities. When faced with challenges in the effort to implement the policies, get downing instructors should detect, persevere and seek for aid to get the better of them. Through these challenges, we would turn to go better pedagogues and in bend, supply the greatest benefits to the pupils. How to cite Challenges being faced as a beginning teacher, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Tranquil post Essay I would like to open a African restaurant, food from all over the continent Africa. My aim is to have different races come and try what real African food and try food from that side of the world .I believe that a restaurant is a place of relaxation and comfort ability both environmentally and in the catering. I want the restaurant to be a home away from home. I want there to be a tropical feeling and where it feels like the world has been condensed into one place.Restaurants generally provide a service. The provide food. All restaurants all different, it may be Chinese, Indian, English or ItalianRestaurant patrons want to be delighted, but not necessarily surprised. If theyre anticipating a family-style steakhouse but find themselves in a more formal environment with a bewildering gourmet menu, the surprise alone may keep them from enjoying the restaurant. Concepts give restaurateurs a way to let patrons know what to expect and also provide some structure for operation. Some of the m ore popular restaurant concepts include: Casual-dining restaurants, Family-style restaurants, Ethnic restaurants, Seafood and SteakhousesFamily- style establishments offer speedy service and menus appealing to a broad range of customers, from children to seniors. Family-style restaurants have prices slightly higher than those at fast-food restaurants, yet still provide table service.Quick-service seafood restaurants generally offer a `limited range of choices, often restricted to fried fish and shrimp. Miscalled and upscale restaurants offer a wider selection of seafood items, prepared in ways other than fried, including baked, broiled and grilled. Seafood can be risky, as seafood prices are always changing and many kinds of seafood are seasonal. Beware: Quality can vary tremendously.Steakhouses are part of the miscalled and upscale markets. Miscalled steakhouses are typically family-oriented, offering a casual environment with meals perceived as good values. Comfort is emphasized, and Western themes are popular. Upscale steakhouses offer a more formal atmosphere and may serve larger cuts of meat of better quality than those served in miscalled restaurants. Upscale establishments offer guests more privacy and focus more on adult patrons than on families.I want to create a casual dining restaurant serving Ghanaian food. Casual-dining restaurants appeal to a wide audience, ranging from baby boomers to kids to Gen Hers to seniors, and they provide a variety of food items. Many successful casual-dining restaurants centre on a theme thats incorporated into their menus and dÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½cor.Step 2: Set Up Your FacilityLayout and design are major factors in your restaurants success. Ill need to take into account the size and layout of the dining room, kitchen space, storage space and office. Typically, restaurants allot 40 to 60 percent of their space to the dining area, approximately 30 percent to the kitchen and prep area and the remainder to storage and office spac e.Dining areaThis is where Ill be making the bulk of your money, so I dont cut corners when designing your dining room. I will visit restaurants in your area and analyze the dÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½cor, watch the diners whether they react positively to the dÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½cor or not.Are it comfortable, or are people shifting in their seats throughout their meals.I will note what works well and what doesnt. The space required per seat varies. For a small, casual-dining restaurant, youll need about 15 to 18 square feet per seat to assure comfortable seating and enough aisle space so servers have room to move between the tables.Production area: Too often, the production area in a restaurant is inefficiently designed, and the result is a poorly organized kitchen and less than top-notch service. Keep your menu in mind as you determine each element in the production area. Ill need to include space for receiving, storage, food preparation, cooking, baking, dishwashing, production aisles, trash storage, employee facilities and an area for a small office where I can perform daily management duties. I will arrange my food production area so that everything is just a few steps away from the cook. My design should also allow two or more cooks to work side by side during my busiest hours.Step 3: Plan Your InventoryBefore I open my restaurant, you need to make sure it will be adequately stocked. To calculate basic stock accurately, review actual sales during an appropriate time period, such as a full year of business. Of course, during my start-up, I wont have previous sales and stocking figures to guide me, so Ill project my first years stock requirements based on my business plan.Depending on the size and type of my restaurant, during my first year I can expect to spend anywhere from Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½4000 to Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½30000 on food, Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½1000 to Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½9000 on beverages, and Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½200 to Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½500 on paper products.My employees will help define my restaurants reput ation. There are several categories of personnel in the restaurant business: manager, cooks, servers, busboys, dishwashers, hosts and bartenders. When my restaurant is still new, some of the duties may cross over from one category to another. For example, I the manager may double as the host, and servers may also bus tables. I will be sure to hire people who are willing to be flexible in their duties. My payroll costs, including my salary and that of your co- managers, should be about 24 to 35 percent of your total gross sales.Step 4: Hire Your StaffFor the Manager the most important employee in most restaurants is the manager. My best candidate will have already managed a restaurant in your area and will be familiar with local buying sources, suppliers and methods. My also want a manager with leadership skills and the ability to supervise personnel while reflecting the style and character of your restaurant.To get the quality of manager I want, youll have to pay well. Depending on your location, expect to pay a seasoned manager Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½20,000 to Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½30,000 a year, plus a percentage of sales. An entry-level manager will earn Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½12,000 to Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½20,000 but wont have the skills of a more experienced candidate. If I cant offer a high salary, work out a profit-sharing arrangementits an excellent way to hire good people and motivate them to build a successful restaurant. Hire a manager a month before you open so he or she can help me set up my restaurant. Once the business is running, the manager can anticipate slower times of the day or week to schedule his or her off-hours.Marketing StrategyA marketing strategy identifies customer groups which a particular business can better serve than its target competitors, and tailors product offerings, prices, distribution, promotional efforts, and services toward those market segments. Ideally, the strategy should address unmet customer needs that offer adequate potential profitability. A good stra tegy helps a business focus on the target markets it can serve best.Target MarketingOwners of small businesses usually have limited resources to spend on marketing. Concentrating their efforts on one or a few key market segments target marketing gets the most return from small investments. There are two methods used to segment a market:Geographical segmentation Specializing in serving the needs of customers in a particular geographical area. For example, a neighbourhood convenience store may send advertisements only to people living within one-half mile of the store.Customer segmentation Identifying those people most likely to buy the product or service and targeting those groups.Managing the Market MixEvery marketing program contains four key components:Products and ServicesPromotionDistributionPricingThese are combined into an overall marketing program.Products and ServicesProduct strategies may include concentrating on a narrow product line, developing a highly specialized pr oduct or service, or providing a product-service package containing unusually high-quality service.PromotionPromotion strategies include advertising and direct customer interaction. Good salesmanship is essential for small businesses because of their limited ability to spend on advertising. Good telephone book advertising is also important. Direct mail is an effective, low-cost medium available to small business.PriceThe right price is crucial for maximizing total revenue. Generally, higher prices mean lower volume and vice-versa; however, small businesses can often command higher prices because of their personalized service.DistributionThe manufacturer and wholesaler must decide how to distribute their products. Working through established distributors or manufacturers agents generally is easiest for small manufacturers. Small retailers should consider cost and traffic flow in site selection, especially since advertising and rent can be reciprocal: A low-cost, low-traffic location means spending more on advertising to build traffic.The nature of the product or service is also important in sitting decisions. If purchases are based largely on impulse, then high traffic and visibility are critical. On the other hand, location is less a concern for products or services that customers are willing to go out of their way to find. The recent availability of highly segmented mailing lists, purchased from list brokers, magazines, or other companies, has enabled certain small businesses to operate from any location yet serve national or international markets.Marketing PerformanceAfter implementing a marketing program, entrepreneurs must evaluate its performance. Every program should have performance standards to compare with actual results. Researching industry norms and past performance will help to develop appropriate standards.Entrepreneurs should audit their companys performance at least quarterly. The key questions are:Is the company doing all it can to be customer -oriented?Do employees ensure the customers are satisfied and leave wanting to come back?Is it easy for the customer to find what he or she wants at a competitive price?Some Marketing IdeasMarketing is all about satisfying customer needs. The following represents a comprehensive list of marketing ideas. Use the list of marketing ideas to help better understand customer needs and ways to satisfy those needs.A business plan precisely defines your business, identifies your goals, and serves as your firms resume. The basic components include a current and pro forma balance sheet, an income statement, and a cash flow analysis. It helps you allocate resources properly, handle unforeseen complications, and make good business decisions. Because it provides specific and organized information about your company and how you will repay borrowed money, a good business plan is a crucial part of any loan application. Additionally, it informs sales personnel, suppliers, and others about your operat ions and goals.Using the PlanA business plan is a tool with three basic purposes: communication, management, and planning.As a communication tool, it is used to attract investment capital, secure loans, convince workers to hire on, and assist in attracting strategic business partners. The development of a comprehensive business plan shows whether or not a business has the potential to make a profit. It requires a realistic look at almost every phase of business and allows you to show that you have worked out all the problems and decided on potential alternatives before actually launching your business.As a management tool, the business plan helps you track, monitor and evaluate your progress. The business plan is a living document that you will modify as you gain knowledge and experience. By using your business plan to establish timelines and milestones, you can gauge your progress and compare your projections to actual accomplishments.As a planning tool, the business plan guides yo u through the various phases of your business. A thoughtful plan will help identify roadblocks and obstacles so that you can avoid them and establish alternatives. Many business owners share their business plans with their employees to foster a broader understanding of where the business is going.These are a few ways to promote a restaurantPublicity stunts Stunt is a word with negative connotations for restaurant owners, but I wanted to use a word that conjured up images that are different than traditional press relations efforts. Sending a standard press release about a new menu may result in a small write-up. To cut through the clutter and generate extensive exposure, you need a newsworthy angle. Something likes a celebrity chef cook-off, really unique contest or other major event. Think beyond typical events like golf tournaments and simple fundraisers. Challenge your staff or marketing firm to think what youd have to do to make it into the Guinness Book of World Records. Challe nge them to think much bigger and come up with ideas that tie in to what your club stands for but also have potential for national exposure. If you create events that have only local appeal, youll be limited with your media exposure potential and may not even make the local paper. If you think much larger, you wont have to worry about getting coverage. A well-constructed publicity stunt can be worth its weight in gold in terms of positive exposure for your restaurant.Public relations Public relations has been called advertising that you dont have to pay for. If you have a successful public and media relations program, youll get increased exposure and prestige without spending a fortune. For this to work; though, youll need to create and publicize newsworthy stories. Hiring a new chef isnt always enough to garner the kind of attention you deserve. Create other angles that are unique and make your restaurant stand out. Also, review your restaurants marketing and advertising expenses over the last three years. Then determine the percentage that was spent on traditional advertising compared to public relations. Its worthwhile to spend 15-30 percent of your budget on a solid public relations program. Find a firm that has creativity and excitement about your restaurant. If that firm doesnt seem genuinely curious and interested in your restaurant and what it has to offer, itll have a hard time creating interest with the media.Bounce backs This is an underutilized tool that bounces guests from peak times to off-peak times and can also work to encourage frequency in your food and beverage operations. While simple in theory and execution, this tactic can produce far more in revenues per dollar invested than traditional advertising. All you do is offer incentives at the point of purchase on popular services to encourage the guest to try your restaurant another time. For instance, if youre busy for lunch and need to drive sales for dinner, offer bounces back certificate s that can only be redeemed during dinner hours.Stop discounting Discounting tells your customers and prospective customers, We dont deserve full price, so well be happy to lower our rates to make up for the difference. This point was driven home to me during my tenure with The Breakers of Palm Beach, a lavish resort whose guests spend a small fortune to walk the halls. Discounting the price would be to discount the 105 years spent building a brand. Instead of discounting, consider no strings offers that do not rely on percentages. Examples include value-added perks such as free valet parking, complimentary services, merchandise, etc. And, in a related topic, never offer coupons, only offer certificates.Business socials some restaurant owners are unreceptive or apathetic to hosting business socials with outside organizations at their establishment. However, if they select the right group to partner with, you can leverage their resources to promote your restaurant, and you can also target your core audience. Host socials where the food is centre stage. Arrange photo opportunities that include your displays in the background and submit to local media. Partnering with a business or charitable organization works on many levels and can help you stretch your marketing budget while still delivering higher returns on investment than can be achieved with traditional advertising.Sampling Tasting believes and if you would grade your food a B minus or above, you need to get it in potential customers mouths. Thats the best way to build recognition and it is more effective and less expensive than advertising. Every public event that draws your core audience is an opportunity to offer samples of your product. Pick the best 2-3 items on your menu that can be easily transported and get some solid representatives of your restaurant out to meet and greet at these off-property functionsHost food events Hosting food events such as the Taste of Caribbean is a great way to posit ion your restaurant as a centre of the food scene in your market. It allows you to leverage the reputation, profile and credibility of all of the other participants, and it can also help you share the expense of holding the event. Hosting an event also provides your restaurant with the opportunity to recruit additional manpower and resources for promoting the event and gives that added edge with garnering local publicity.Toss up days Promote this program through your next newsletter and other internal marketing vehicles to your existing customer base. Pick a day which is the slowest food day and flip for the food tab. Guests will have a 50 percent chance of getting their food bill paid by the restaurant. This attracts your guests attention much more than a buy one get one free restaurant promotion. Guests are also more likely to have higher check averages than normal because there is a chance they wont have to pay. It creates a tremendous attention among your core guest base.Menu B ingo This is a great tactic for encouraging frequency and getting members to try different items on the menu. You simply create bingo cards that have different menu items in boxes. Have the cards designed with five columns and five rows. You can also promote other non-food items such as merchandise, cookbooks, and gift certificates. Guests have an allotted period of time 60 days for example to complete a connection just as they would with a bingo card. Once they try five items in any direction, they receive a free gift basket or other incentives that are roughly equal to one of the items purchased.Birthday program Research shows that 40 percent of all Ghanaian eat out on their birthday. This presents an opportunity for establishments with solid birthday programs. So restaurants should take more advantage of this. It does offer a chance for you to swoop in and capture your increased share of the market. A birthday program can be executed through new automated tools like those tha t are available through e-mail marketing service providers. You simply plug in the birthday and e-mail address of your members, and a secure and nicely designed e-mail is sent to them at a time you determine in advance. The system knows who and when to send the e-mail to and also tracks view rates for reporting that allows you to know how well your program is working. You can also have the e-mail include a redemption code that will allow you to track what percentages of the e-mails are bringing in guests and calculate a return on investment. Recent research has shown that retention based e-mail marketing is 300 to 400 percent higher than traditional vehicles such as direct mail and faxes. Its a great way to communicate and manage your clubs birthday program.Market researchMarket research aims to helps an organisation make effective marketing decisions by providing information that can inform the decision making process. Its is concerned with the data in order help the producer bette r understand their costumer. I will be carrying out a market research, I will do this because it can help an organisation to achieve it overall objective because it can identify market opportunities for example move from sitting on wooding chairs to cushioned chairs. It can be used to asses and improve marketing activity for example improves the service offered in a restaurant. It helps improve the quality of marketing being undertaken by revealing important costumer information such as, what the costumer wants, what they prefer, how often they eat out or what type of food they prefer. I will use primary research because primary research obtains new information and helps you keep on top pf competition. It helps to know the costumer that uses their products it also helps organisation to know what improve on. It is cheap and brings a lot of information.Secondary research makes use of research already carried out by someone else for another project. I will also use secondary research b ecause it helps me have a broader view of the were restaurants are positioned in the market. Secondary information comes from the television, magazines, internet, news and current affairs. Access to secondary information can be easy and cheap to accessDun Bradstreet- this research publishes a number of directories such as comprehensive financial reports on companies and on the trading prospects in a particular industry this is often used by suppliers and other creditor to determine companys credit worthiness.Mintel standing for market intelligence is one of the leading sources of secondary marketing information. Every month mintel analyses the consumers, producers, advertising and distribution within a range of market.Company report is a legal requirement for a public limited is to publish data about it activities in the previous.Observation is watching and recording the activities of a business or individual to identify actions.Back data is existing company information which can u sed to make a decision of forecast future trends.Annual abstract of statistics are data collected by the government on all areas of public and business life.Trial air when a product is used and opinions and views are recorded on the experiencePilots- a preliminary stage in market research in which a small number of interview are conducted to see whether the questionnaire, advert or product achieves the research objectivesField trials- testing a new or improved product on costumers within you target market.Consumer panel-a group of consumers within a firms target market used on a regular basis for market research exercises.Test marketing- the launch of a new or improved product within a tightly defined area, older to measure actual sales potential.Concept testing- to test the accepting of a concept by target consumersDemand is a desire to own or a service. It is affected by consumer taste, price, incomes, advertising and the popularity of other products.P3Form the market research vid eo I watched, I found out that before a research is done, the company has to find out from their clients, what the aims and objectives of what they want for example, their buying habits, information about their competition in order to keep on top of competition.The market research survey is good and is an advantage to the company because is save money. The market research identifies the costumer needs and wants. The company needs to understand its competitors and I identify the aims and objectives.The system that the company does when they enter their questions is coded. Their questionnaires are pre-tested before they go out to costumers. Some questionnaires are open ended other are closed ended questions.The advantages of closed questions are that it is easier and quicker for respondents to answer, the answers of different respondents are easier to compare, answers are easier to code and statistically analyse, the response choices can clarify question meaning for respondents, respo ndents are more likely to answer about sensitive topics, there are fewer irrelevant or confused answers to questions, less articulate or less literate respondents are not at a disadvantage and replication is easier.The disadvantages are that they can suggest ideas that the respondent would not otherwise have, respondents with no opinion or no knowledge can answer anyway, respondents can be frustrated because their desired answer is not a choice, it is confusing if many response choices are offered, misinterpretation of a question can go unnoticed, distinctions between respondent answers may be blurred, clerical mistakes or marking the wrong response is possible, they force respondents to give simplistic responses to complex issues and they force people to make choices they would not make in the real world.However open ended questions can be useful because they permit an unlimited number of possible answers, respondents can answer in detail and can qualify and clarify responses, unan ticipated findings can be discovered, they permit adequate answers to complex issues, they permit creativity, self-expression, and richness of detail and they reveal a respondents logic, thinking process, and frame of reference, yet it also has some disadvantages, open ended questions could be different respondents give different degrees of detail in answers, responses may be irrelevant or buried in useless detail, comparisons and statistical analysis become difficult, coding responses is difficultÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ articulate and highly literate respondents have an advantage, questions may be too general for respondents who lose direction, a greater amount of respondent time, thought, and effort is necessary, respondents can be intimidated by questions and answers take up a lot of space in the questionnaire.