Thursday, March 19, 2020
Calculus Calculus Calculus By Maeve Maddox A reader writes, The other day I heard a radio commentator constantly using the phrase in that calculus, something Id never heard before. [The] commentator was using it in a political context, pretty much as a fancy way of saying in that situation; Id be grateful if you could look into it and cover it some time! Calculus is one of those words like parameter and paradigm that have been yanked from their habitual scientific contexts into the general vocabulary by non-scientists to make their utterances sound more profound. In the context of mathematics, the word calculus is usually preceded by differential or integral: integral calculus: a branch of mathematics concerned with the theory and applications (as in the determination of lengths, areas, and volumes and in the solution of differential equations) of integrals and integration. differential calculus: a branch of mathematics concerned chiefly with the study of the rate of change of functions with respect to their variables especially through the use of derivatives and differentials. Calculus is the diminutive of Latin calx, Ã¢â¬Å"stone.Ã¢â¬ A calculus was a little stone or pebble. The plural, calculi gives us the word calculation because pebbles were used for counting. Calculi were also used as game pieces and for voting. In the context of medicine, calculus is a hard deposit that builds up in the body to produce kidney stones, plaque, and such. The word calculus is now to be found in a variety of contexts: Competition along routes is just one variable in that calculus. (The context is a discussion of the process of airline pricing.) They are casting Ellsworth as an unwilling enabler who will further an agenda even though he might not fully support it. And, in that calculus, his vote for Speaker of the House comes first and foremost. No medical intervention is 100% safe. However vaccines are remarkablyÃ safeIt is risk versus benefit and in that calculus vaccines win. J. C. Watts Endorsing Newt Gingrich is Awful Political Calculus In New Calculus on Smoking, ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Gained vs. Pleasure Lost The political calculus on immigration reform changes day by day, but the moral calculus has not. It seems to me that in each of these examples, situation, calculation, or thinking would serve the context. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Is She a "Lady" or a "Woman"?What is Dative Case?How Many Sentences in a Paragraph?
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Definition and Examples of Isocolons in Rhetoric IsocolonÃ is aÃ rhetorical termÃ for a succession ofÃ phrases,Ã clauses, orÃ sentencesÃ of approximately equal length and corresponding structure. Plural:Ã isocolonsÃ orÃ isocola. An isocolon with three parallel members is known as aÃ tricolon. A four-part isocolon is aÃ tetracolon climax. Isocolon is particularly of interest, notes T.V.F. Brogan, because Aristotle mentions it in theÃ RhetoricÃ as theÃ figureÃ that produces symmetry and balance inÃ speechÃ and, thus, createsÃ rhythmicalÃ proseÃ or even measures in verse (Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 2012). Pronunciation Ã ai-so-CO-lon Etymology From the Greek, of equal members or clauses Examples and Observations Climate is what we expect; weather is what we get.Ã¢â¬â¹It takes a licking, but it keeps on ticking!(advertising slogan of Timex watches)Im a Pepper, hes a Pepper, shes a Pepper, were a PepperWouldnt you like to be a Pepper, too? Dr. Pepper!(advertising jingle for Dr. Pepper soft drink)Come then: let us to the task, to the battle, to the toileach to our part, each to our station. Fill the armies, rule the air, pour out the munitions, strangle the U-boats, sweep the mines, plow the land, build the ships, guard the streets, succor the wounded, uplift the downcast, and honor the brave.(Winston Churchill, speech given in Manchester, England, on January 29, 1940)Nothing thats beautiful hides its face. Nothing thats honest hides its name.(Orual inÃ Till We Have Faces: A Myth RetoldÃ by C.S. Lewis. Geoffrey Bles, 1956)Pity is the feeling which arrests the mind in the presence of whatsoever is grave and constant in human sufferings and unites it with the sufferer. Terror is the feeling which arrests the mind in the presence of whatsoever is grave and constant in human sufferings and unites it with the secret cause.(James Joyce,Ã A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, 1917) An inconvenience is only an adventure wrongly considered; an adventure is an inconvenience rightly considered.(G.K. Chesterton) Effects Created by Isocolon Isocolon... one of the most common and important rhetoricalÃ figures, is the use of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases similar in length and parallel in structure. . . . In some cases of isocolon the structural match may be so complete that the number ofÃ syllablesÃ in each phrase is the same; in the more common case, the parallel clauses just use the sameÃ parts of speechÃ in the same order. The device can produce pleasingÃ rhythyms, and the parallel structures it creates may helpfully reinforce a parallel substance in the speakersÃ claims... An excessive or clumsy use of the device can create too glaring a finish and too strong a sense of calculation.(Ward Farnsworth,Ã Farnsworths Classical English Rhetoric. David R. Godine, 2011) The Isocolon Habit Historians ofÃ rhetoricÃ continually puzzle over why theÃ isocolonÃ habit so thrilled the Greeks when they first encountered it, whyÃ antithesisÃ became, for a while, anÃ oratoricalÃ obsession. Perhaps it allowed them, for the first time, to see their two-sidedÃ arguments.(Richard A. Lanham,Ã Analyzing Prose, 2nd ed. Continuum, 2003) The Difference Between Isocolon and Parison - IsocolonÃ is a sequence ofÃ sentencesÃ of equal length, as in Popes Equal your merits! equal is your din! (DunciadÃ II, 244), where each sentence is assigned five syllables, iconizing the concept of equal distribution... Parison, also calledÃ membrum, is a sequence ofÃ clauses or phrasesÃ of equal length.(Earl R. Anderson,Ã A Grammar of Iconism. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press, 1998) - The TudorÃ rhetoriciansÃ do not make the distinction betweenÃ isocolonÃ andÃ parison...The definitions ofÃ parisonÃ by Puttenham and Day make it identical with isocolon. The figure was in great favor among the Elizabethans as is seen from its schematic use not only inÃ EuphuesÃ but in the work of Lylys imitators.(Sister Miriam Joseph,Ã Shakespeares Use of the Arts of Language. Columbia Univ. Press, 1947)
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Sixth Amendment - Essay Example The right to a speedy trial is calculated to ensure that the accused is not unduly remanded in custody while awaiting trial. It safeguards against the possibility that an innocent person should have a criminal charge hanging over his head for an unreasonable period of time. (Head) The requirement for a public trial ensures that the judicial process is accountable and that under public scrutiny a public record of the trial will aid in judicial review of the process via the appellate system. The right to an impartial jury is calculated to further ensure that the criminal trial process is free of prejudices and unfairness. Jury selection as practiced reflects the intent of the Sixth Amendment by providing a vetting process that safeguard against jurors serving who might be predisposed to prejudices against the accused person, the victims or the criminal process in general. (Head) It also attempts to aid in the selection of a jurors who have not been or will not be influenced by media re ports so that the accused will only be judged by the facts presented in evidence at his or her trial. The right to confront witnesses is crucial to the element of fairness within the ambit of the Sixth Amendment. It lays the groundwork by which the prosecution is required to meet the burden of proof. At a trial the witnesses are required to provide sworn testimony of the criminal claim with the accused present. The right to confront those witnesses gives way to the practice in which the accused if he decides may either by himself or through his legal council cross-examine those witnesses. The idea is to test the veracity of the evidence and to ensure that the witnesses are credible. By the same measure the accused is entitled to call his own witnesses if he deems necessary. For instance he might be able to present alibi evidence capable of proving that he could not have committed the crime since he was not in the vicinity of the
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Organizational Policy and Strategy Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1
Organizational Policy and Strategy - Case Study Example The industry rivalry amongst the producer businesses is important criteria for introducing cutting edge differentiating element in the products to gain leverage. This is one of the major motivating factors for Samsung Inc to be highly innovative in its products and development processes. The quality and creative input within the product gives huge advantage to the suppliers and puts him in a bargaining position. Samsung producing high quality memory chips at relatively low cost has been able to bargain with its customers. The bargaining power of buyers is reduced when there is short supply of quality goods which have great demand. In the case of Samsung, the buyers increasingly prefer them because of their quality products and their credibility of supplying goods timely. The technological advancements have brought forth an explosion of information that is easily accessible to public through the internet and other media like television, radio, mobile phones etc. The competition from substitute become highly likely and the company needs to adopt innovative approach to its marketing. Samsung has successfully met this aspect by evolving flexible strategies like innovative product like and introducing elements of surprise within the products as well within the marketing of the products and services. Last but not the least is the threat from new entrants of the business. The globalization has provided facilitating grounds for new entrants and therefore, the existing firms must ensure that speed and flexibility become intrinsic part of their strategy as they become extremely important ingredients for the products so that the organizations can timely and efficiently meet the fast changing preferences of the customers. Under the dynamic leadership of Kun Hee Lee, the company enjoyed competitive advantage over their rivals in the world market primarily because of the sharp business
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Classroom Community in Distance Education Classrooms Study of a Sense of Classroom Community in Distance Education Classrooms of Dental Hygiene Schools in the US by I. Smilyanski, RDH, MS Sense of classroom community as a critical aspect of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic success and overall satisfaction with their learning process The literature review presented some very important points regarding distance learning process in higher education in general, healthcare education, and dental hygiene education in particular. It is apparent that DE is one of the fastest growing fields in higher education, dental hygiene including.(reference from previous lit synth) This method of delivery is cost effective, efficient, and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear to affect studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic performance to any significant extent.(reference from previous lit synth) However, there is a common thread that emerges in literature regarding studentsÃ¢â¬Ë negative perception of their learning experience and their overall lower satisfaction associated with DE.(reference from previous lit synth) Ever since the modern communication technology was introduced in a classroom, the debate is taking place about how important is the community spirit for studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ progress in their learning.1 At the turn of the 21st century, multiple seminal research papers presented the idea of a Ã¢â¬Å"spiritual learning communityÃ¢â¬ 1, a college classroom where community spirit is the main contributing factor for studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ graduation success1. A group of scientists attempted to look deeper into phenomenon of a sense of community in a college classroom. McKinney et al1 in their 2006 research made an effort to measure a sense of classroom community to see how it affects studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction level. They also examined how the changes in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance in a classroom can be correlated to the changes in their sense of classroom community.1 In their controlled study of 40 psychology students the authors used both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. 1 Sense of Classroom Community (SCC) was measured with the Ã¢â¬Å"Sense of Community QuestionnaireÃ¢â¬ adopted from J. SchweitzerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"the Sense of Community in NeighborhoodsÃ¢â¬ assessment instrument.1 The authors made significant effort to eliminate potential bias, the data was made fully anonymous through the coding process.1 The results proved to be quite impressive. The Pearson correlation statistical analysis showed highly positive (p1 Another important observation made during this study: the higher examination grades were also correlated (p = .029) to the increase in the SCC.1 Unfortunately, the experiment was limited to psychology students. It is important to see if similar conclusions can be made from a study of a different course or a program so the findings can be fully generalized. The next study looked into the importance of a sense of classroom community in increasing learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction and decreasing their feeling of isolation.4 The study was performed on the group of 412 medical students located in multiple remote campuses in Arizona.4 The researchers used RovaiÃ¢â¬â¢s Classroom Community Scale as a measuring instrument.4 The results showed that the longer time students spent in their remote locations, the higher their feeling of isolation became.4 Their sense of classroom community and academic satisfaction has been decreased over that time as well.4 ANOVA data analysis showed that there is statistically significant (p4 It is important to point out that this research was done in the medical field, with the use of distance education modality in remote campuses, and it had large sample size and anonymous data collection. This makes the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s findings even more valuable.4 To further this literature review into the area of distance education, it is essential to look into the Rovai and LuckingÃ¢â¬â¢s3 research of a Ã¢â¬Å"Sense of Community in a Higher Education Television-Based Distance Education ProgramÃ¢â¬ published in 2003.3 This important controlled study used a convenience sample of 120 adult learners. The research objective was to measure the sense of classroom community (SCC) in conventional and distance- interactive television based courses to see if there are any variations depending on which route is used.3 The study employed the Sense of Classroom Community Index (SCCI) which is a previous version of the RovaiÃ¢â¬â¢s Classroom Community Scale (CCS) described above.3 Reliability analysis of this scale was also performed with N = 511 and CronbachÃ¢â¬â¢s alpha coefficient of .96.3 The data from the pre-test and the post-test administered to the students was analyzed using the ANOVA and ANCOVA techniques. The results proved that the se nse of classroom community was significantly lower among television based course students at the end of intervention (one college semester) than it was at the time of the pre-test.3 The control group, students from conventional classroom, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t show similar trend.3 All the studies described above show similarities in their evaluations of the community spirit in higher education classrooms.1,3,4 They prove that the sense of classroom community (SCC) is the critical component when evaluating outcome of a higher education, whether it is conventional or DE method of delivery. 1,3,4 All the studies correlate a lower SCC to a lower studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction, and potentially lower academic outcomes. 1,3,4 They also use various scales to measure the SCC with different levels of reliability. 1,3,4 The final study that is presented here developed the device to be used as a measurement tool for the SCC and determined how reliable this tool is.2 In his 2002 study Rovai2 assessed data collected through the post-test from a random sample of 375 students enrolled in 28 various college courses to analyze validity and reliability of the scale that is based on the 20-questions survey.2 With the extensive use of inferential statistical analysis the author pro ved with the high degree of consistency that the Classroom Community Scale (CCS) can be fully relied on when measuring a SCC in higher education classroom.2 A. Rovai concluded that his 20-item questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to be used in research.2 To conclude this literature review, there are very important questions that need to be answered about DE modality in dental hygiene education. Research is very limited in this specific field, however other areas show the trend of a lower sense of classroom community, lesser feeling of belonging, and lack of feeling of connectdeness.1-4 These are very important parameters to consider because they have large influence on how students perceive their learning experience and because they can potentially affect studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ outcomes.(references to be added) RovaiÃ¢â¬â¢s Classroom Community Scale appears to be a reliable tool that can be used when studying these factors.2 Although research in dental hygiene education and other fields didnÃ¢â¬â¢t establish that the DL is directly related to lower academic performance, some authors found a sense of community to be very important for overall learning experience.1 The following research will attempt to measure the SCC among remote campu s based students of multiple dental hygiene programs in the US and compare with control groups of students located within the host campuses. References 1. McKinney JP, McKinney KG, Franiuk R, Schweitzer J. The college classroom as a community: Impact on student attitudes and learning. College Teaching. 2006;54(3):281-284. 2. Rovai AP. Development of an instrument to measure classroom community. The Internet and Higher Education. 2002;5(3):197-211. 3. Rovai AP, Lucking R. Sense of community in a higher education television-based distance education program. Educational Technology Research and Development. 2003;51(2):5-16. 4. Vora RS, Kinney MN. Connectedness, sense of community, and academic satisfaction in a novel community campus medical education model. Acad Med. 2013.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Abstract This paper explores multiple published articles discussing Toyota Motor CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A review of ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions to hide important information prior to recalls leads us to a discussion of where Toyota can go from here. The paper includes recommendations for Toyota Motor Company in order to move forward after their 2010 recalls. In addition, organizational changes will assist Toyota Motor Company in overcoming their recall problems. Quality Management within Toyota Motor Company After a number of discouraging recalls at Toyota Motor Company in 2010, a number of quality management techniques were implemented. Toyota Motor CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s SWOT Analysis played into the newly implemented quality management techniques. ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths allowed them to fight back quickly against these recalls that could have ultimately led to ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s fall from one of the top motor companyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Toyota Motor CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths include dominant position in the marketplace, strong brand recognition, strong focus on research and development, and broad production and distribution network. In addition to ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths, their weaknesses were reviewed in order to find opportunities to capitalize upon. The recalls were obviously a large weakness at Toyota. Opportunities were reviewed which included the growth of the global automotive industry. Last, ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s threats were reviewed. Here it was found that powerful competition is a worry for To yota Motor Company. After the review of Toyota Motor CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s SWOT Analysis, the issue of the recalls was assessed. Analysis shows the issue within Toyota Motor Company did not appear overnight. However, secretive management styles let the company astray. A diagram was created by functional area to summarize how Toyota has responded to these recall problems. The functional areas reviewed include management, production design and safety, quality, and manufacturing. Last, the analysis of Toyota Motor CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s recall and quality management issues are discussed from a point of solving the problem. Recommendations are discussed that will help Toyota Motor Company to turn their weaknesses into strengths. Method Discussion SWOT Analysis Internal Factors Strengths Weaknesses Product Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dominant position in the marketplace Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strong brand recognition Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strong focus on Research & Development Ã¢â¬ ¢ Broad production and distribution network Ã¢â¬ ¢ Product recalls have the ability to negatively affect brand image Ã¢â¬ ¢ Declining sales in crucial geographic areas External Factors Opportunities Threats Competition Ã¢â¬ ¢ Growth of the global automotive industry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Potential benefit from partnering with BMW Ã¢â¬ ¢The outlook for the new global car market is strong Ã¢â¬ ¢ Powerful competition Ã¢â¬ ¢ Appreciation of the Japanese Yen Ã¢â¬ ¢ Environmental regulations Ã¢â¬ ¢Natural disasters Strengths. Toyota has a number of internal product strengths as noted in the SWOT Analysis table above. ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s market share in 2011 was 16.5 percent,Ã its highest market share in 4 years. This strong market share allowed Toyota to hold a competitive advantage against their competition. In addition to holding a dominant position in the marketplace, Toyota possesses strong brand recognition through a number of brands. These brands include Toyota, Lexus, Prius, Corolla, Yaris, Camry, Sequoia, 4Runner, Scion tC, Highlander, Land Cruiser, and a number of other brand names. These brands are some of the most desired premium brands in the world according to the Company Profile report for Toyota Motor Company documented by MarketLine. Another strength of Toyota is their strong attention to research and development. According to the Company Profile report, ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on research and development is pointed towards the creation of new and improved products. Research and development operations are conducted at 14 facilities located around the world. This strength has allowed Toyota to increase the technology included in existing products. One of these products, a Pre-collision System (PCS) helps drivers avoid collisions. Overall, the strong focus on research and development has been a big strength for Toyota. Last, ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s production and distribution network has been a big strength for the company. Toyota produces automobiles, related parts, and other components through more than 50 manufacturing companies throughout 27 countries and regions, not including Japan. As mentioned on the Toyota Motor Company website, major locations include Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Thailand, China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, South Africa, Australia, Argentina, and Brazil. As reported by Toyota Motor Company, during fiscal year 2013 the company had consolidated vehicle sales totals of 8.871 million units (TCM, 2013). As reported by Toyota Motor Company, this was an increase of 1.519 million units compared to the previous fiscal year. In addition to the widespread production of Toyota products, the company has a large distribution network. ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution network is one of the largest in Japan encompassing four sales channels (Toyota, Toyopet, Corolla, and Netz). In 2012 the distribution network of these channels was comprised of 283 dealers. In addition to this network, Toyota operates over 170 Lexus sales channels in Japan. As reported by Toyota Motor Company, in fiscal year 2013 these networks accounted for the following vehicle sales: Japan sales totaled 2.279 million units In North America vehicle sales totaled 2.469 million units In Europe vehicle sales totaled 799,085 units Asia came in at total vehicle sales of 1.684 million units Central and South America, Oceania and Africa came in at 1.640 million units As you can see, ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution network is widespread allowing for diversification and a wide reach of clientele, ultimately boosting revenues and sales. Weaknesses. A large focus of the case study focuses on the weakness of ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s product recalls. As many are aware, Toyota has encountered a number of recalls in the recent past. It is a concern that these recalls could negatively affect ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s brand imagine ultimately leading to decreased sales for the company. When searching for Toyota recalls it was easy to find a few recent recalls. The most recent is a recall of 700,000 Toyota Prius models which were recalled over electronic issues in the United States (csmonitor.com, 2014). Another very recent recall includes certain versions of the Lexus RX crossover. In this case, more than 261,000 vehicles are being recalled due to a brake issue (csmonitor.com, 2014). In addition to the many recalls, Toyota has been involved in a number of lawsuits. In December 2012, Toyota settled a suit by paying $17.4 million to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to settle claims related to the June 2012 recall of potential accelerator pedal entrapment issues. This bad press will ultimately result in a negative effect on consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence in ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s brand. In addition, the settlement of suits ultimately decreases ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s profits. As a result of this bad press Toyota saw a decline in 2012 sales in important geographic areas. Declining sales in fiscal year 2012 were seen across North America, Asia, and Europe. Opportunities. As reported by the article, Global automotive industry to experience modest growth in 2012, a number of opportunities exist in the global automotive industry (2012). The Japanese auto industry responded from natural disasters which had caused reduced inventories and production. It is forecasted that the industry will continue to grow increasing Toyota revenues. In June of 2012, BMW and Toyota signed a long-term partnership. The two companies are partnering on the developments that will help to increase market share and sales. This relationship is expected to increase technology between the two companies asÃ well as result in new product development. In addition to these opportunities, the new car market is experiencing moderate growth which will assist in increased sales and profits. Threats. Intense competition in the worldwide car market has become very competitive. This competition will likely increase in the upcoming years as competitors add more technology and increase developments. In addition to the intense competition, the appreciating Japanese Yen has become a big concern for Toyota. Last, environment regulations have the potential to increase production costs. Emissions regulations that are updated periodically could cause issues in new car production. Evolvement of Quality Management Issues At first glance, it seems that ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s gas pedal issue appeared overnight. However, upon further research, evidence was found to prove the opposite. As reported in the article Secretive Culture Let Toyota Astray, evidence that Toyota cars could suddenly speed up had been piling up for years (2010). At the time of the recalls, Toyota had known about this gas pedal problem for more than a year. The problem was stated to be ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s secretive corporate culture in Japan which ultimately conflicted with United States requirements that auto makers disclose safety threats. New initiatives brought to the table by Toyota have attempted to correct the previous secretive culture of Toyota. Total quality management initiatives have been put in place to assist in better customer service and safety and repair issues. According to Jacobs and Chase, total quality management can be defined as managing the entire organization so that it excels on all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer (Chase and Jacobs, 2014, p. 296). The table following this discussion addresses the steps Toyota has taken in response to its recent quality recall problems. Functional Area Quality Management Steps Management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managing Director names to oversee any safety-related issues Ã¢â¬ ¢ Top down management approach Product Design & Safety Ã¢â¬ ¢ Troubleshooting teams known as Swift Market Analysis Response Teams work toÃ find any safety issues that need to be reported Quality Ã¢â¬ ¢ TAQIC Ã¢â¬â Toyota Advanced Quality Information Center staffed by a group of employees who compile repair reports from dealerships worldwide Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1000 engineers hired to spot-check quality Manufacturing Ã¢â¬ ¢ No drastic changes to assembly lines Results/Discussion Problem Solution As discussed in the diagram above, there were many opportunities for Toyota after their encounter with the recall situation. Akio Toyoda, the head of the company, acted quickly by implementing a top down management approach instead of the more popular Japanese Ã¢â¬Å"bottom upÃ¢â¬ approach that slows down the decision making. In addition, Akio cut board of directors by fifty percent and cut out management layers. Akio also began meeting with his top five advisers on a weekly basis. In these meetings decisions were made quickly. Akio pushed his team to make Ã¢â¬Å"always better cars.Ã¢â¬ This change in the way the organization is managed helped Toyota to stay on top even through the recalls. Recommendations Many recommendations have been made to assist Toyota Motor Company in improving the recall situation they encountered in 2011. Some recommendations Toyota should follow include as recommended by the North American Quality Advisory Panel include the following: Give North American operations more independence in making recall decisions Strengthen quality control processes Extend development time of new products to include more safety tests Create a role of Chief Safety Technology Officer Create and launch a Safety Research Center focused on protecting the most important clientele (children, teens, and seniors) These ideas follow the concept of total quality management which focuses on two fundamental goals: Careful design of the product (in the case of Toyota Motor Company, the vehicle) Ensure that Toyota Motor Company systems can produce this designÃ in a consistent manner Quality at the source seems to be a great way for Toyota Motor Company to proceed. Quality at the source means that the person who is doing the work is taking the responsibility for making sure the work meets specifications. As previously discussed, safety control will be a huge initiative for Toyota Motor Company going forward. If implemented, these recommendations can do a lot to help Toyota Motor Company increase their organizational effectiveness. As previously discussed, many organizational steps were taken by Akio Toyoda after these recalls. It seems that Toyota could greatly benefit from organizational learning. As stated by Operations and Supply Chain Management, Ã¢â¬Å"it has been argued that organizational learning is critical to sustaining a competitive advantageÃ¢â¬ (Chase and Jacobs, 2014, p. 138). Organizational realignment was important to Toyota Motor Company after the 2010 and 2011 recalls. According to a Toyota news release in December of 2008 organizational changes include the establishment of the below: A Government and Public Affairs Group which was focused on quick response to inquiries from around the world while also unifying public affairs functions. An Accounting Group aimed at strengthening the business management and financial management system of Toyota Motor Company. A Europe and Africa Operations Group intended to assist with business planning in African and Central Asia. The group was also established to conduct business promotion events in both Europe and Africa. A Production Engineering Group aimed at increasing the strength of the quality control system for semiconductors for hybrid vehicles. The recommendations made are important to ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s future. Reorganization and creation of new groups within the organization will help Toyota to overcome these recalls. References Ingram, A. (2014, Feb 12). Toyota recall: 1.9 million Prius vehicles recalled to fix software glitch. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/Business/In-Gear/2014/0212/Toyota-recall-1.9-million-Prius-vehicles-recalled-to-fix-software-glitch Jacobs, F. R., & Chase, R. (2014). Operations and supply chain management. (14 ed.). New York, NY:
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Abstract This paper is a personal review of an internship in the marketing and sales department of B.Z. Berlin (a tabloid newspaper based in Berlin). The paper reviews how my capacities in those department help satisfy the 4Ps (promotion, price, placement, and product) of marketing. Different components of the marketing mix exhibited in my duties included creating a balance of salacious with genuinely positive and heart-warming news; creating cash giveaways to generate regular readership; diffusing criticism of the tabloid industry through balanced reporting of positive news; and encouraging advertisers to buy space in both the online and the print version of the tabloid. The paper also uses the The Paradigm of Survival, to analyze the tabloids marketing mix. This theory stresses the need for all products to be marketed based upon their ability to satisfy basic human needs, such as sexual desire, fear, or security. As well as personal reflections the paper contains analysis of the cu rrent state of the news industry and the challenges of coping with a world in which papers must compete for readers and advertising revenue both online and in print. KEYWORDS: tabloid, 4Ps, Paradigm of Survival; Marketing Mix; Newspaper Industry Internship review: The marketing and sales department of B.Z. Berlin While interning at the marketing and sales department at B.Z. Berlin (a tabloid newspaper in Berlin), I was able to gain an insiders view of how both print and digitalShow MoreRelatedInternship Review: The Marketing and Sales Department of B. Z. Newspaper, Berlin1757 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Internship review: The marketing and sales department of B.Z. Berlin While interning at the marketing and sales department at B.Z. Berlin (a tabloid newspaper in Berlin), I was able to gain an insiders view of how both print and digital publications must position themselves in the competitive, ever-changing news marketplace. Marketing within the communications industry is extremely cutthroat and even relatively popular tabloids with an established readership like B.Z. Berlin must fight for marketRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesSingapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services: Ashley Santora Acquisitions Editor: Brian Mickelson Editorial Project Manager: Sarah Holle Editorial Assistant: Ashlee Bradbury VP Director of Marketing: Patrice Lumumba Jones Senior Marketing Manager: Nikki Ayana Jones Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Production Project Manager: Becca Groves Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Operations Specialist: Cathleen Petersen Senior Art Director: Janet Slowik ArtRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words Ã |Ã 702 PagesELEVENTH EDITION MARKETING MISTAKES AND SUCCESSES 30TH ANNIVERSARY Robert F. Hartley Cleveland State University JOHN WILEY SONS, INC. VICE PRESIDENT PUBLISHER EXECUTIVE EDITOR ASSISTANT EDITOR PRODUCTION MANAGER PRODUCTION ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE MARKETING MANAGER ASSISTANT MARKETING MANAGER MARKETING ASSISTANT DESIGN DIRECTOR SENIOR DESIGNER SENIOR MEDIA EDITOR George Hoffman Lise Johnson Carissa Doshi Dorothy Sinclair Matt Winslow Amy Scholz Carly DeCandia